Logo Animal Genetic Resources of Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University

Animal Genetic Resources Portal-NBAGR

Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR) consist of a large number of breeds of domesticated animal and poultry species such as cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, pig, horse, camel, poultry, etc. Due to loss of a number of breeds over time, conservation and sustainable use of AnGR has become important and urgent. Conservation of genetic diversity between and within domestic animal breeds is an insurance for the future animal agriculture in terms of food production, disease resistance and adaptability to climate chamges. A broad genetic base is crucial to deal with future changes in environment, markets for animal products and animal production systems.

Animal Genetic Resources - An Overview

Animal husbandry is an integral component of agriculture supporting livelihood of more than two-thirds of the rural population. These sectors also play a significant role in supplementing family incomes and generating gainful employment in the rural sector, besides providing cheap nutritional food to millions of people. Livestock provides milk, egg, meat as nutritious food, draught power for agriculture, wool, fibre, manure and domestic fuel, hides & skin. In 2010-11, this sector contributed 121.84 million tonnes of milk, 63 billion eggs, 42.99 million kg wool, and 4.83 million tonnes of meat to Indian economy. Milk is the main output of livestock sector accounting around two third (67%) of the total output by livestock sector. Meat and egg share 17.5% and 3.6% of the value of livestock output. Livestock contributed 3.6% to the total GDP and 24% to the agricultural GDP in 2010-11. Livestock are the best insurance against the vagaries of nature like drought, famine and other natural calamities.

According to the 2007 Livestock Census, the country had 530 million livestock population and 649 million poultry population. During 2003-07, cattle and buffalo population has increased @1.5 per cent per annum each while sheep increased @3%, goat @2.5% and chicken @8.6% per annum. Population of horses, camel, donkey, mule, pig, mithun and duck has decreased

Presently, there are 144 registered breeds of livestock and poultry in India which includes 37 breeds of cattle, 13 of buffalo, 39 of sheep, 23 of goat, 6 of horse and ponies , 8 of camel, 2 of pig , 1 of donkey and 15 of poultry in addition to many more not characterized and accredited so far, besides populations/breeds of other species like mules, yaks, mithuns, ducks, quails etc which are yet to be classified in to well descript breeds. The vast and varied population of animals that country possess is indigenous and about 20 to 25% of this population belong to well descript and recognized indigenous breeds of different species. The remaining large proportion of farm animal population is of non-descript native animals which so far have not been characterized systematically.

Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has initiated a mechanism for "Registration of Animal Germplasm" at National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR), Karnal. This would provide protection to the valuable animal genetic diversity and facilitate its access for genetic improvement of animal breeds. Registration is nothing but a documentation of the knowledge, skills and techniques and, biological resources of local communities. Fifteen New breeds have been registered so far. This includes seven breeds of cattle, three of buffaloes, two each of goat and pig, and one of donkey. Indigenous pig and donkey breeds have been registered for the first time.

Conservation strategies can be categorized either as In-situ conservation or as Ex-situ conservation. In-situ conservation primarily involves the active breeding of animal populations in such a way that diversity is optimally utilized in the short term and maintained for the longer term. In situ models of AnGR conservation have been developed by NBAGR by providing technical inputs and incentives to the farmers/breeders in the breeding tract of respective farm animal breeds.Ex-situ conservation means conservation away from the habitat and production systems where the resource developed.

National Animal Gene Bank has been established at NBAGR, Karnal. A total of 1,09,200 frozen semen doses belonging to 277 breeding males (Bulls/Rams/Bucks/Stallions) from 37 breeds representing cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, camel, yak and equine have been preserved at National GeneBank for posterity.


Phenotypic characterization of AnGR generally refers to the process of identifying distinct breed populations and describing their external and production characteristics within a given production environment. Phenotypic traits include observable traits such as height, weight, eye color, hair color, horn size, hoof color, etc.

Assessment of the population characteristics of identified breed is also an important component of livestock characterization. This includes estimates of population sizes, flock/herd structure, and assessment of the level of indiscriminate or irrational crossbreeding which are indicators of threat to the survival of the adapted indigenous genetic resources.

A breed is used in phenotypic characterization to identify distinct AnGR population as unit of reference and measurement. Phenotypic characterization is used to identify and document diversity within and between distinct breeds, based on their observable attributes.

Objectives of phenotypic characterization

  • To identify new breed
  • To know the geographical distributions of the breed
  • To know status of breed in terms of population, characteristics, etc. in native environments
  • To document unique characteristics of the breed
  • To Identify elite animals to be used in improvement programmes
  • To develop monitoring mechanism for conservation and sustainable use of the genetic resources
  • To create public awareness regarding the importance of AnGR
  • To document animal genetic resources

Constituents of phenotypic characterization

A phenotypic characterization study will involve collecting a number of different kinds of data, which includes:

  • Demographical and geographical distribution of the breed/population
  • Native environment/habitat of the breed/population
  • Enumeration of breeds in terms of age, sex in a population of the breed/population
  • Management practices and utility of the breed/population
  • Socio-economic status of the communities rearing the breed
  • Qualitative and quantitative characterization of breeds in relation to morphological traits, production potential and reproductive status etc.
  • Qualitative and quantitative description of unique animals, elite producers and rare or unusual characteristics in certain specimens
  • Images of typical adult males and females, as well as herds or flocks in their typical production environments
  • Relevant indigenous knowledge (including gender-specific knowledge) of management strategies used by communities to utilize the genetic diversity in their livestock



Genetic variability is a major concern to define any livestock breed and to preserve the maximum amount of genetic diversity, it is important to characterize different breeds so that we can know how unique or different a breed is from other native populations. The genetic characterization is a further step to answer questions on taxonomy, evolution, domestication processes, management of genetic resources and setting conservation plans for their effective utilization.

The objective of these guidelines on Molecular characterization of animal genetic resources is to help countries to plan and implement effective analyses of the genetic diversity of their AnGR, so that resulting information can contribute to the development of effective plans for sustainable use. Molecular characterization should be undertaken as part of a comprehensive national programme for management and conservation of AnGR in concert with phenotypic characterization.

Objectives of genetic characterization

Genetic characterization assesses the genetic constitution of a breed. It assesses the genetic uniformity, admixture or subdivisions, inbreeding, or introgression in the population. It is also helpful in providing insight into breed formation, informing about closest wild ancestral species and localization of the site of domestication. Further, these can be used in parentage testing.

Sampling Design

Molecular characterization should ideally be done along with phenotypic characterization, preferably. For molecular characterization, it should be ensured that samples are drawn in such way that it should cover most of the genetic variability in the population.

Choice of samples

Almost all cells or tissues may be used for DNA analysis for genotyping by any methods. However, most common tissue is blood. Generally 10-15 ml of blood should be collected as a sample from an individual. Other samples like semen, hide, bone, tissue (e.g. ear tissue), feaces, fossils, plucked hair with root cells (cut hairs can be used for mtDNA analysis) and feathers can also be used.

Number of samples

For reliable estimation of allele frequencies, at least 25 and preferably 50 animals per breed should be typed for genetic characterization. More than 50 animals should be collected to allow for possible losses, mistyping or missing. If there are population subdivisions, different subtypes or agroclimatic zones, sampling a larger number of animals is recommended.

Choice of genetic marker

Microsatellite markers analysis methodologies are DNA based and this brings advantages that are both attractive as well as amenable. For example: (i) the DNA samples can not only be isolated very conveniently from blood of live individuals but can also be isolated from tissues like sperm, hair follicle, and even from archival preparations, (ii) the DNA samples can be stored for longer periods and can readily be exchanged between the laboratories, and (iii) the analysis of DNA can be carried out at an early age or even at the embryonic stage, irrespective of the sex.


International Society of Animal Genetics(ISAG)–FAO Advisory Group on Animal Genetic Diversity have recommended panels of 30 microsatellite markers for nine major livestock species-cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, horse, donkey, camel, pig and chicken (Molecular Genetic Characterization of Animal Genetic Resources). The list of these which can also be obtained from the website www.globaldiv.eu/docs/Microsatellite%20markers.pdf. Use of these markers helps to obtain a global view of animal genetic diversity.

Extracting DNA

Several reliable protocols for DNA extraction are available. Most commonly used protocols are based on proteinaseK/SDS lysis of cells, organic extraction and alcohol precipitation. These are technically simple and cost effective methods DNA collected on FTA cards can be extracted by washing the FTA disks with TE buffer.


automated microsatellite genotyping i.e. amplification using Fluorescent dye labeled primers and genotyping by automated DNA sequencer should be preferred over manual genotyping through running Urea-PAGE polyacrylamide gels followed by silver staining technique.

Data analysis

Some of the software packages most commonly used in for genetic analysis are- POPGENE (http://www.ualberta.ca/~fyeh/), Bottleneck, AMOVA (Analysis of Molecular Variance), Arlequin (http://lgb.unige.ch/arlequin/), GENEPOP (http://wbiomed.curtin.edu.au/genepop/), GENECLASS, GDA (http://lewis.eeb.uconn.edu/lewishome), GENETIX (http:// lotka.stanford.edu/microsat/microsat.html), Microsatellite (http://oscar.gen.tcd.ie/~sdepark/ms-toolkit/), FSTAT (http://www.unil.ch/izea/softwares/fstat.html), Phylip (http://evolution.genetics.washington.edu/phylip/getme.html) and TreeView (http://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/rod/treeview.html)



  • Y-chromosomal marker
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)
  • Copy number variations (CNV)
  • Genome sequencing


Animal Genetic Resources - Conservation

Phenotypic characteristics (appearance) are often used to divide animals into species, and there is great diversity across species. However there may be limited genetic variation within any given species. Domestication of animals has led to the development of specific breeds, in the process increasing the within species variation.

  • Animals are kept in environments ranging from temperate to tropical, resulting in selection for different characteristics in different locations.
  • Humans have selected animals for specific uses, e.g. cattle for draft purposes, meat and milk; poultry for eggs and meat, sheep for meat, wool and milk.
  • Animals are often kept in large groups, leading to indirect selection for disease resistance and behaviour.

Reasons for Genetic Conservation

We need to keep potentially useful genes and gene combinations

The 'best' is defined by industrial production of a small number of products in a developed world. We are only now beginning to understand the complexity of genes and how they interact to produce the phenotype. We risk losing genes of adaptive value.

To take advantage of heterosis (hybrid vigour)

Heterosis is the increase above the average of the parent stocks obtained by crossing genetically diverse breeds. Crossbreeding is practiced widely in swine, sheep, and beef production. If only a few breeds are kept, the opportunity to develop good crosses is lost.

To provide an insurance policy against
  • climate change
  • spread of disease, especially in monocultures
  • changing availability of feedstuffs
  • social change, such as issues of animal welfare and environmental sustainability
  • selection errors: a widely used sire may spread a genetic disease throughout a population before the problem is identified
For research

Control (unselected) lines are used to measure genetic progress in selection. Identification of specific genes, which regulate traits such as product quality and health, is made easier by comparing very different groups. Economic evaluation of breeding programs now includes sociological aspects, as part of a focus on sustainable rural development. Research into the role of minor breeds in such production systems is needed.

Goals of conservation

To keep genetic variation as gene combinations, in a form that is easily recovered

Live animals may be appropriate for some situations. Cryopreservation of sperm, ova or embryos is possible in many species and new tissue culture technologies show promise.

To keep specific genes

As gene sequences linked to specific traits are identified and defined we will be able to save those DNA portions of interest.

Necessary Steps for conservation


Definition of a breed as endangered depends on factors such as the number of breeding males and females, overall numbers, number of sub-populations, and trends in population size. It is thus important to monitor numbers and change in numbers on an on-going basis.


Stocks must be characterized for phenotype and genotype, using new technology as appropriate. Gene mapping approaches such as testing for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP's) help to track ancestry and to determine the genetic distance of one group from another. Phenotypic performance evaluation must be standardized, and carried out in the environment in which the stocks might be used.


Choice of breeds for conservation must include cultural reasons, potential value and threat of extinction. New mathematical techniques and economic theories assist in assessing risk of loss and potential benefits.

Saving pure breeds preserves that breed's characteristics and makes a readily identifiable animal. Crossing several breeds to produce composites has the advantage of saving the genetic material from all while reducing upkeep costs. However the total genotype of each breed is lost.


Populations can be saved as live animals. This is expensive and unless the breed can be used for production is not likely to succeed. Development of niche marketing schemes emphasizing the traits of a particular breed can be successful. Linking breed maintenance with tourism and education (farm visits) can be useful.

Cryopreservation: Semen, ova, and preferably embryos can be frozen. This is successful for cattle, but is unfortunately difficult for some species. For those species where cryopreservation is routinely practiced a national centre for monitoring and maintaining frozen genetic resources is needed.

DNA collection: The potential exists to use DNA and cloning to re-develop breeds, but the technology is still new and costs are high. Whether kept as live animals or as frozen material, more than one location is needed. Natural disasters, accidents, and changes in financial resources can result in instant loss of a stock.

Source:- Farm Animal Genetic Resources Conservation

Management of Animal Genetic Resources

There are significant gaps in capacity to manage AnGR, particularly in developing countries. International community adopted the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources (GPA) at the International Technical Conference on Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in September 2007. It includes 23 strategic priorities for action grouped into four priority areas: characterization and monitoring; sustainable use and development; conservation; and policies, institutions and capacity-building.

The main responsibility for implementing the GPA lies with national governments. However, some Strategic Priorities are particularly relevant to implementation at regional or international level.

Source:- Implementing the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources

Animal Husbandry Departments in India

Animal husbandry in India is a state subject and every state government is making its policies for livestock and poultry development, human resource development and provides assistance to government and non-government Institutions engaged with such activities. The management of AnGR has overlapping domains involving mainly the departments of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE) and Animal Husbandry and Dairying (DAHD) in the Ministry of Agriculture. DARE is primarily related with research and education on conservation, improvement and development of AnGR whereas DAHD is related with policy formulation and its execution in these and other aspects of animal husbandry in the country.

Links related to the Departments of Animal Husbandry in India

Links related to Breed Societies and Non-Government Organisations (NGO)

Research in the field of animal genetic resources

Research opportunities cover a wide range of thematic areas in Animal genetic Resources. The biggest gap in knowledge is animal breeding for local populations in harsh environments. There is also a lack of research in functional genetics and genomics of adaptation and disease resistance traits. Breed characterization including molecular characterization has been popular research subject in AnGR. Research for conservation has also been taken up although some fundamental questions galore on genetic diversity and risk of its loss. We require to understand the socio-economic, infrastructural, technical and formal constraints that limit the operation of sustainable conservation programs in underdeveloped countries. Information systems on animal genetic resources need input from research to achieve a degree of completeness. Economic analysis and issues related to gene flow and benefit sharing should be addressed by putting more research efforts.

Major Research Areas on AnGR are listed as:


DAD-IS is the FAO Domestic Animal Diversity Information System DAD-IS.
Data capture, including first-time information and regular updates, is relatively good in a number of developed countries but is rather deficient in most developing countries, which are comparatively rich in genetic diversity. Having the information in these countries is crucial if a complete picture of the status of farm animal biodiversity is to be obtained. FAO maintains a global database on AnGR, but the information is incomplete. Many other countries maintain regional databases, but the network among the databases is lacking.

Animal Breeding

Animal breeding for the major international breeds has led to genetic gains for many important production traits. Research has been more on how to achieve genetic gains than on selection objectives. Now it is recognized that more importance has to be given to functional traits such as anatomy of feet, legs and udders (in dairy cattle), metabolic stress, fertility, longevity, health, disease resistance, behavior and others.


Conservation of animal genetic resources is a controversial issues, basically because of decisions on what breeds to conserve, how to do it and who will pay for it. The rationale behind conservation of farm animal diversity is that humankind may need to keep this specific genetic biodiversity to face future challenges such as changes in demand for livestock products, spread of new diseases, reducing environmental impact and climate change. This biodiversity would be the source pool for genes that confer disease resistance, specific product qualities like fatty acid composition or milk composition, resistance to draught and high temperatures, and production traits to be combined in newly formed breeds / populations. There are also less production-oriented arguments in favor of conservation, such as cultural values, traditional livestock keepers and preservation of rural landscapes.

Conservation of animal genetic resources, in economic terms, would be the maintenance of use and non-use value to humans.

Multidisciplinary Research Projects

Multidisciplinary nature of a relatively novel approach to the management of farm animal genetic resources demonstrate the interaction and positive synergy among different areas of research and different types of research teams dealing with the subject in several institutions.

Pig Biodiversity I (Delgado et al., 2003) involved technical aspects of sampling, AFLP and micro-satellite marker genotyping, statistical analysis of genetic profiles and calculation of genetic distance, dissemination of data and legal aspects of the intellectual property of the genetic material and its associated information. Pig Biodiversity II (European Commission, 2008) extended the research to 50 Chinese pig breeds, including sampling and storage of DNA to study genetic diversity by micro-satellite markers, characterizing type I loci and QTL regions, mtDNA and Y-chromosomal DNA, and using DNA marker data to identify genes involved in functional differences among breeds.

The project ECONOGENE (European Commission, 2008) combines molecular analysis of biodiversity, socio-economics and geostatistics to address the conservation of sheep and goat genetic resources, and rural development in marginal agrosystems in Europe.

Research priorities reported by various countries

Information systems Upgrading of existing information systems on AnGR
Data collection on population size and structure
Geographical Information System (GIS) on animal genetic resources
Characterization Adaptation and performance traits of indigenous breeds
Survey and Analysis Methods for phenotypic characterization
Environment descriptors to evaluate Genotype, Environment interactions
Genetic diversity Definition and determination of risk status
Monitoring population status
Measures to halt the declining genetic diversity
Assessments of genetic diversity using molecular genetic markers
Development and supply of international reference samples
Integration of phenotypic and molecular data
Identification of gene variants for important traits
Methods to assess the extent of genetic dilution of a breed
Indicators for farm animal genetic diversity
Functional genetics Understanding the genetic basis of adaptive traits
Genetic basis of disease resistance and host– pathogen interactions
Genetic basis of adaptation to difficult environments and efficiency
New tools for conventional and transformative genetic improvement
Animal breeding Whether to implement genetic improvement programs
Genetic impact assessment
Simulation to predict the consequences of introduction of exotic breeds
Breeding strategies in low and medium input environments
Breeding strategies with little or no organizational infrastructure
Stable crossbreeding systems with a role for native breeds
Selection for disease resistance if specific genes have been identified
Implement DNA-based selection without compromising production
Measurement of stress/psychological status (aggression, discomfort)
Selection methods for temperament and less foot and leg problems
Selection for increased efficiency of feed utilization
Genetic variance in nutrient requirements
Genetic variance in digestion of specific amino acids and phosphorus
Conservation In-situ in vivo conservation to maximize livestock keepers' livelihoods
Sustainable in situ in vivo conservation with development objectivest
Self-sustaining ex situ in vivo conservation in developing countries
Ex situ in vitro cryoconservation of gametes and embryos
Sampling and storage of germplasm as backup for breeding programs
Somatic cloning to improve safety and cost-effectiveness
Blueprints for national and multinational genebanks
Legal and sanitary frameworks for storage and access
Criteria for optimization of resource allocation in conservation
Early warning/response mechanisms with defined triggers and actions
Economic analysis Analytical methods to define global benefits of conservation
Costing of conservation alternatives in diverse situations
Field-test promising valuation methods across production systems
Traits used by farmers for local breeds under some production systems
Market analysis for livestock breeds and their products
Cost–benefit analysis of breeding programs
Expectation analyses of effects on livelihoods of using alternative breeds
Access and benefit sharing Relationship between access and trade in livestock germplasm
Need for and impacts of frameworks for access and benefit sharing
Assessment of public and community use of biodiversity
Significance of national regulations/animal disease control protocols
Current and future benefits from global flows of livestock germplasm
Assessment of scenarios that change flows and the share of benefits


List of Animal Science Institutes with links to their websites:

Animal Gentic Resources Societies

SOCDAB : (Society For Conservation of Domestic Animal Biodiversity)

The animal genetic resources are regarded today as being important to efforts that are designed to maintain and enhance the competitiveness of Indian agriculture on domestic and international markets. Realising the growing concern that urgent action is needed on the issue of conservation of farm animal genetic resources, a group of concerned professionals met, discussed and resolved to provide a platform to dedicated and enthusiastic conservationists. The establishment of the Society for Conservation of Domestic Animal Biodiversity (SOCDAB) with its headquarters at National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources in June, 1998 is the culmination of dedicated efforts of such professionals. Membership of the society has been growing continuously. The society organises a national symposium every year.

ISAG : (International Society for Animal Genetics)

The International Society and the International Foundation for Animal Genetics (ISAG and IFAG) evolved from a series of annual workshops for comparing methods for detecting red cell antigens and variants of proteins to a organization focusing on basic and applied research on molecular genetics. The Society and the Foundation support exchange of research ideas, results and applications by organizing conferences and workshops, comparison tests and publishing Animal Genetics, the official journal of the Foundation. From its beginning the Society has been recognized for its open and friendly character, providing a excellent plat-form for new and young scientists.

ISAG is a scientific society that provides a forum for the exchange of information and reagents between members.

ISAGB : (Indian Society of Animal Genetics and Breeding)

Society for Promotion of Sustainable use of Animal Genetic Resources and their Conservation in India.

ANSI : (Animal Nutrition Society of India)

Animal Nutrition Society of India (ANSI) came into existence under the umbrella of Lord Venkateshwara at Tirupati during Animal Nutrition Research Worker's Conference held at the College of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry, APAU, in 1982. Thereafter, the society grew exponentially over the years. It has assumed the role of an apex body for the animal nutrition research and its application on the farm/ field and feed industry, with regard to feeding of animals and laying of feeding standards for the different categories of livestock. Today, the society has about 900 plus members coming from National Research Institutes, State Agricultural Universities, Feed Industries, Cooperatives, Corporate bodies, NGO's, Private Institutions and abroad.

IPSA : (Indian Poultry Science Association)

Indian Poultry Science Association (IPSA) is a registered society (Registration No. 875/ 1989-90) providesa common interactive platform for researchers, scholars, poultry business houses, professionals and others aligned to poultry sector .....in persuit of socially attractive, environmentally green and economically viable technologies for welfare of poultry fraternity.

Databases on Animal Genetic Resources


An Information System on Animal Genetic Resources of India (AGRI-IS) has been developed at National Bureau of Animal genetic Resources, Karnal, India.

The AGRI-IS covers all the indigenous breeds of domestic livestock and poultry species from India.. This database contains descriptors of various breeds of livestock and poultry, information on farms, semen production, vaccine production; and district-wise information on population, animal breeding, animal health infrastructure, animal products like milk, meat, egg, wool, etc. It also stores photographs of male and female animals of breeds.


Information on the extent of existing diversity, characteristics and use of indigenous farm animal genetic resources in developing countries is the basis for their present as well as future sustainable utilization. In view of lack of a systematic database on this information, ILRI has been developing the Domestic Animal Genetic Resources Information System (DAGRIS) as a web-based electronic source of information on selected indigenous farm animal genetic resources. Its current geographic scope is Africa and selected Asian countries with an envisaged future coverage of developing countries in Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean.

DAGRIS is an information system designed to facilitate the compilation, organization and dissemination of information on the origin, distribution, diversity, present use and status of indigenous farm animal genetic resources from past and present research results in an efficient way. The underlying concept is that such information provides the necessary basis for developing breed improvement as well as conservation programmes.


DAD-IS, developed at FAO is the key communication and information tool for implementing the Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR). It is being developed first to assist countries and country networks, and also serves as the virtual structure for the Strategy. It will increasingly provide extensive searchable databases, tools, guidelines, a library, links and contacts.


Recognizing their common interest in documentation and information of animal genetic resources in Europe and raising awareness on the need for conservation and sustainable use of these resources, ERFP and EAAP have agreed to maintain and update the European Information System for AnGR (EFABIS). EFABIS covers passport, descriptive and performance data as well as population and other data of the animal breeds in Europe. EFABIS is managed by the regional node manager on behalf of both EAAP and ERFP. EFABIS serves as an impartial platform for the distribution of national data provided by the European National Coordinators or such national nodes as delegated by the National Coordinators for the task of editing and updating national data. EFABIS also serves for the European submission of animal genetic resources data to the FAO Domestic Animal Diversity Information System DAD-IS.